Inhibition of HIV-1 by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors via an induced fit mechanism – Importance of slow dissociation and relaxation rates for antiviral efficacy

01 January 2010

Elinder, M., Selhorst, P., Vanham, G., Öberg, B., Vrang, L. and Danielson, U.H. (2010) Biochem. Pharmacol. 80;1133-1140

The importance of slow dissociation of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for antiviral effect has been investigated. The kinetic characteristics of a series of NNRTIs interacting with wild type and drug resistant variants of HIV-1 RT (EC were analyzed by SPR biosensor technology. The antiviral effect was determined in MT-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Due to extremely slow dissociation rates and a complex interaction mechanism, rate constants could not be quantified. Instead, interaction characteristics were qualitatively analyzed using simulated sensorgrams. The simplest model describing these interactions adequately was an induced fit mechanism, i.e. a mechanism involving the formation of an initial enzyme-inhibitor complex subsequently transformed into a more stable complex. Differences in rates of dissociation from the initial complex and rates of relaxation from the induced complex explained (1) the differences in the amounts of formed complex, (2) the stability of the complex and (3) the antiviral efficacies of the compounds. The effect of NNRTI binding site mutations also correlated with these kinetic characteristics. MIV-170 was the most effective inhibitor of wild type and mutant HIV-1 in cell culture, a property that was associated with the formation of the largest amount of complex and the slowest relaxation and dissociation rates. This study supports the hypothesis that the efficacy of anti-HIV drugs is dependent on slow dissociation from the target, thereby maximizing the duration of the inhibitory effect. It also illustrates the strength of simulating interaction data for qualitative analysis of tight-binding drugs and the importance of resolving the kinetic mechanism of drug-target interactions.

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